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۱٫۱ Soil Erosion
Erosion is a process in which soil particles separated from her bed and using a transfer agent shipped to another location. If the separation of the particles from the substrate and transfer it to the water it is called erosion. Other types of erosion, wind erosion and glacial erosion can be named. The basin is larger and higher gross erosion of sediment transport it will be smaller. Factors that are effective against sediment transport in a point ; 1- The topography of the basin 2- Characteristics of rains and floods 3- Basin physiographic features 4- Soil and watershed The amount of sediment carried by the river and into the reservoirs may be divided into two categories: 1- Sediment suspended in the water and above the water moving along the river bed. This material is said to be suspended load. 2- Sediments in the river bed with water flow can be rolled forward to this type of bed load sediment called. Total Load a river of bed load and suspended load is formed.
۱٫۲ Methods of estimating sediment If data in a basin of water and sediment flow and annual precipitation levels are adequate Calculate the total volume of annual sediment basin is possible using conventional statistical methods. But the absence or violation of data in many countries, the use of experimental methods to determine the severity of watershed soil erosion and sediment yield is essential. One of the methods for erosion and sediment in different parts of the world, including Iran, are used PSIAC (Pacific Southwest Inter Agency Committee)
۱٫۳ Objectives and need for research To identify remote sensing methods and their use in the calculation of sediment in the river and then evaluate the results to determine the amount of sediment deposited by the river for a hydrometric stations is information. This will be the procedure for application of GIS information using satellite images acquired and river sediment can be used to obtain this information. Remote sensing a useful tool for monitoring suspended sediment in surface waters is due to various reasons, including multispectral nature, covering a wide area, the line is long and repetitive nature of satellite imagery. Using remote sensing techniques to study soil erosion and sedimentation basins, compared to traditional methods with greater speed and accuracy is very efficient so as techniques should be placed. In this study, using remote sensing and satellite image processing and interpretation with the help of sediment are obtained. 2. BACKGROUND OF THE RESEARCH Mr. Voss and his colleagues in 1997, turbidity and suspended sediments in the basin of the river Humber studied using satellite images. Mr. Andrka in 2007, remote sensing and identification of potential areas of sedimentation in the river Danube examined Mr. Vyfing Jao in 2008 with the global model of soil erosion (USLE) soil erosion and sedimentation tank CHAOBAIHE the main source of drinking water in the river MIYAN Chinese capital Beijing is to be examined.